Researchers performing long-term agricultural studies in Wisconsin conclude that "...organic systems were more profitable than the Midwestern standards of continuous corn, no-till corn and soybeans, and intensively managed alfalfa" while "rotational grazing of dairy heifers was as profitable as the organic systems."
Further, "...organic forage crops can yield both as much dry matter as their conventional counterparts and with quality sufficient to produce as much milk..." and organic corn, soybean, and winter wheat "can produce 90% as well as their conventionally managed counterparts..." with weed control being a problem on average in one out of three years, and production being almost identical in two out of three years.
Chavas, J-P., Posner, J.L., Hedtcke, J.L. (2009). Organic and conventional production systems in the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial: II. Economic and risk analysis 1993-2006. Agronomy Journal 101:2, 288-295.
- Currently free - future access via UW-Madison library online subscription
Posner, J.L., Baldock, J.O., Hedtcke, J.L. (2008). Organic and conventional production systems in the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trials: I. Productivity 1990-2002. Agronomy Journal 100:2, 253-260.
- UW-Madison access via library online subscription
- Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial Project
- Report of the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial Project (1989-2006)
- Vertical distribution of phosphorus at the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial (2004)
- Low-input forage rotation: similar returns, reduced costs (2001)
- Cropping systems trial provides unique analysis (1999)
- Diversity pays off on cash grain farms (1999)
- Gross margins comparison of three cash grain cropping systems 1991-1994 (1995)
- Long-term study evaluates impacts of six Wisconsin cropping systems (1993)
- Baseline data for a coorientational approach to evaluation of changes produced by a sustainable agricultural demonstration program: the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial (1993)